What is ADAS?Read about ADAS and its development trend in one article

ADAS is the abbreviation of Advanced Driver Assistance System. Translated into Chinese, it means Advanced Driver Assistance System. Simply put, it is to make active judgments and preventive measures before the driver’s subjective response in an emergency to achieve the role of prevention and assistance. We can call it a simplified version of autonomous driving – ADAS advanced driver assistance system.

What is ADAS?Read about ADAS and its development trend in one article

ADAS is the abbreviation of Advanced Driver Assistance System. Translated into Chinese, it means Advanced Driver Assistance System. Simply put, it is to make active judgments and preventive measures before the driver’s subjective response in an emergency to achieve the role of prevention and assistance. We can call it a simplified version of autonomous driving – ADAS advanced driver assistance system.

ADAS is not exactly autonomous driving, it can be said that the research focus of the two is completely different. ADAS is assisted driving, and the core is environmental perception, while autonomous driving is artificial intelligence, and the systems are very different. However, ADAS can also be regarded as the premise of self-driving cars. To judge whether a system is an ADAS system or an automatic driving system, the key depends on whether the system has a decision-making part.

The sensors used in ADAS mainly include cameras, radar, laser and ultrasonic, which can detect light, heat, pressure or other variables used to monitor the state of the car, usually located in the front and rear bumpers of the vehicle, side mirrors, inside the steering column or in the windshield on glass. Early ADAS technology was mainly based on passive alarms. When the vehicle detects potential danger, it will issue an alarm to remind the driver to pay attention to abnormal vehicle or road conditions.

The ADAS market has grown rapidly in recent years. These systems were originally limited to the high-end market and are now entering the mid-range market. At the same time, many low-tech applications are more common in entry-level passenger vehicles. New and improved sensor technology is also Create new opportunities and strategies for system deployment.

The driving assistance system is mainly composed of GPS and CCD camera detection modules, communication modules and control modules. Among them, the GPS and CCD camera detection modules receive GPS satellite signals through the GPS receiver, obtain the longitude and latitude coordinates, speed, time and other information of the car, and use the CCD cameras installed on the front and rear of the car to observe the conditions on both sides of the road in real time. ; The communication module can send the detected relevant information and transmit the driving information in real time between the cars that are close to each other; the control module can make active control when an accident is about to occur, so as to avoid the accident.

ADAS typically includes the following systems:

1. Navigation system;

2. Real-time traffic system TMC (Traffic Message Channel);

3. Electronic police system ISA (Intelligent Speed ​​Adaptation or Intelligent Speed ​​Advice);

4. Vehicle networking system VSA (Vehicular Communication Systems);

5. Vehicle Detection VD (Vihicle Detection): In the vision-based mode, VD currently needs to be able to detect vehicles 70 meters away and continue to track vehicles 100 meters away. However, in the case of heavy fog, extreme weather and the camera is blocked, VD is unavailable, but it can prompt the user that it is unavailable;

6. Adaptive Cruise Control ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control): ACC is generally based on radar or laser technology. It is now possible to base on vision/camera technology;

7. Lane Departure Warning System LDWS (Lane Departure Warning System): LDW detects various lane signs and roadsides at night, rain and snow and other conditions (should not be particularly extreme weather). It can work on straight roads and curves, but in the condition of poor visibility, it will automatically turn off and give a prompt;

8. Lanechange Dssistance; LKAS is an intelligent high-tech system that automatically controls the steering wheel and adjusts the vehicle to the correct driving trajectory when the vehicle deviates from the lane line inactive. The camera of LKAS senses and detects the vehicle’s driving trajectory, and transmits signals to the vehicle driving control system to help the vehicle drive on the correct trajectory.

9. Distance detection and warning HMW (Headway Monitoring & Warning);

10. Forward Collision Warning System FCWS (Forward Collision Warning System): When a car accident occurs, it is mostly too late to respond, or there is no warning. The FCW can give a warning 2-3 seconds before a collision to avoid a car accident. Therefore, FCW needs to detect the distance and relative speed of the vehicle or pedestrian ahead;

11. Collision Avoidance System or Precrash System;

12. Pedestrian Detection PED (Pedestrian Detection): General PED should distinguish between walking and stationary people, and give the pedestrian’s position and speed. If the pedestrian is on the vehicle’s driving route, it can give key hints and collision time. In reality, people walk, run, carry things, push carts and other forms and actions. PEDs must be able to handle these situations, especially crowd detection. In order to avoid major accidents, PEDs must give additional reminders. Detecting the movements and postures of sidewalks and pedestrians is also of great significance to the safety of vehicles;

13. Night Vision;

14. Adaptivelight Control;

15. Pedestrian Protection System;

16. Automatic Parking System AP (Automatic Parking);

17. Traffic Sign Recognition TSR (Traffic Sign Recognition): TSR can identify traffic signs on the road such as speed limit signs, including fixed or non-fixed LED signs. This information can also be fused with navigation map information to provide more precise information. The technical points mainly lie in image processing, and the extraction and identification of sign structure information;

18. Blind Spot Detection;

19. Driver Drowsiness Detection;

20. Hill Descentcontrol;

21. Electric Vehicle Warningsounds;

22. Panoramic imaging system SVM (Surround View Monitor): Panoramic imaging systems generally require more than four fisheye cameras, which can see all the conditions around the vehicle. Technically, it is necessary to calibrate the camera, register and stitch the images, realize the virtual realization of the vehicle itself, and simulate the state of the vehicle.

23. Intelligent Headlight Control IHC (Intelligent Headlight Control): IHC needs to consider two situations, the oncoming car and the car driving in the same direction ahead. For an oncoming car, at a certain distance, such as 800-1000 meters, if its forward headlights are recognized, the high beams will be changed to low beams, and after the intersection, the high beams will be restored. For cars driving in the same direction ahead, the taillights can be identified, and when approaching a certain distance, the high beams can be changed to low beams. Similarly, the low beams can also be changed to high beams;

24. Augmented Reality Navigation AR NAVI (Augmented Reality Navigation): AR NAVI is a combination of ordinary navigators and cameras. AR NAVI not only uses forward-facing cameras to record the road conditions in front of the car, but also draws on the video according to the information of the navigation map. A virtual line arrow appears to Display navigation-related information. If AR NAVI is combined with PED, VD, LDW and other applications, its functions will be further enhanced;

25. High Beam Assist HBA (High Beam Assist) HBA is an intelligent high-tech that automatically switches the vehicle’s high and low beam system. In nighttime driving conditions, when the oncoming vehicle approaches or approaches the vehicle in the same direction, the HBA automatically switches from high beam to low beam, and switches back to the original state when the vehicle moves away.

HBAs have significant practical utility for drivers who often drive at night.

26. Traffic Sign Recognition System TSR (Traffic Sign Recognition) TSR is an intelligent high-tech that recognizes and judges road traffic signs in advance. Another significant utility of TSR is that it can be used in conjunction with vehicle navigation systems to recognize road traffic signs in real time and transmit the information to the navigation system.

27. Traffic Light Recognition System TLR (Traffic Light Recognition) TLR is an intelligent high-tech that recognizes traffic lights and informs the driver of the status of the lights ahead in advance. In addition, TLR can also be used in conjunction with the vehicle cruise system or image storage system to assist driving more effectively.

28. Others….

1. Blind spot detection system

The blind spot of a car driver refers to the area that cannot be seen from the left, right and inside of the three rear-view mirrors. I believe that many drivers are deeply impressed by the blind spot. It is also one of the accidents that often occur in many accidents. The blind spot detection system uses radar and sensors to detect the blind spot area behind the vehicle, and provides warnings to the driver when the vehicle is approaching in the blind spot area, helping the driver to minimize the chance of accidents.

2. Parking assist system

ADAS’s parking system benefits many novices who can’t park. The parking assist system is divided into two types, active and passive. The former system automatically controls the steering wheel to help the driver complete the parking. Of course, the accelerator, brake and gear switch are still controlled by the owner. The latter is composed of image (camera) and audio-visual (ultrasonic) sensing units, providing more information around the car for the owner to master and reducing the chance of collision.

3. Lane Departure Warning System LDW

This system is composed of cameras, sensors and controllers. The principle is to use the cameras on the side of the body or the rearview mirror to sample the marking lines of the current driving lane, and then obtain the current position of the car in the lane through image processing. When you deviate from the lane, the controller will send out an alarm signal. It only takes about 0.5 seconds from sensing to sending out an alarm to remind and wake up the driver in real time to avoid accidents.

4. Collision prevention system FCW

The radar installed on the front of the car detects the distance and speed of the vehicle and the vehicle ahead. At the beginning, a warning sound will be issued to remind the driver to pay attention to the distance between the vehicles. Gently pull the seat belt 2-3 times to warn the driver. If the system determines that the collision cannot be avoided, it will immediately tighten the seat belt to secure the driver after the automatic emergency braking (AEB) is activated to reduce the injury after the accident. .

5. Road suitability light system

This system can automatically adjust the illumination range and angle of the headlights according to different road conditions, environment, vehicle speed and weather conditions, so that the illumination range of the headlights can be more far-reaching, and it will not image the sight of other passers-by, so as to provide driving conditions. Safer and more comfortable lighting for people and oncoming vehicles, from the AFS active steering headlights in the past to the multi-LED smart headlights combined with sensors now belong to the scope of this system.

6. Night vision system

It can help drivers automatically identify animals or large foreign objects at night or in bad weather, and warn the driver of road conditions ahead to avoid accidents. The identification method is to use infrared rays to sense the difference in heat, distinguish the differences between people, animals, vehicles and the environment, and convert them into images after processing, so as to clearly present the objects that were not clearly visible in front of the driver’s eyes to reduce the risk of driving.

7. Active distance control cruise system, ACC

This is through the distance sensor installed on the front of the vehicle, which continuously scans the road in front of the vehicle to know the speed and relative distance of the vehicle in front. It will automatically detect the vehicle speed while driving. When the distance to the vehicle in front is getting smaller and smaller, it will be adjusted accordingly. Own speed, maintain a safe distance from the vehicle ahead, reduce the occurrence of collision accidents, which is the so-called advanced version of the automatic cruise system, which can be seen on many models.

8. Monitoring of driver’s physiological state

At present, most systems use cameras to detect the driver’s face to determine the level of concentration and whether there is a sign of dozing. In addition, the system uses the frequency of the driver’s eyes to open and close to identify the safety level and provide appropriate warnings or warnings. It is an assist action. If the driver’s facial expression changes less, or even closes his eyes, the vehicle will alert the driver through sound and lights to reduce accidents.

9. Trilogy of each system

Each system mentioned above mainly includes 3 programs: information collection, analysis, and instruction execution.

A. The first is information collection: different systems need to use different types of vehicle sensors, including millimeter-wave radar, ultrasonic radar, infrared radar, lidar, CCD CMOS image sensor and wheel speed sensor, etc., to collect the working status of the vehicle and its parameter changes, and convert the changing mechanical motion into electronic parameters (voltage, resistance and current). For example, lane departure warning systems use CMOS image sensors, night vision systems use infrared sensors, adaptive cruise control usually uses radar, and parking assist systems use ultrasonics.

The ADAS system needs to be assisted by different types of vehicle sensors, including millimeter-wave radar, ultrasonic radar, infrared radar, lidar, CCD CMOS image sensor and wheel speed sensor, etc., so that the car can grasp the external vehicle conditions before subsequent follow-up. Alert or reaction action.

B. The second is information analysis and command issuance: the electronic control unit (ECU) will analyze and process the information collected by the sensor, and then issue action commands to the controlled execution device.

C. The last is the execution action: systems including accelerator, brake, light, sound, etc. all belong to the category of actuators, which will perform various reaction actions according to the signals output by the ECU, so that the car can drive safely on the road.

At present, the main function of the ADAS system is not to completely control the car, but to provide the driver with the working situation of the vehicle, analyze relevant information such as changes in the external environment, and warn the driver of possible dangerous situations in advance, so that the driver can take early measures. measures to avoid traffic accidents. As for the purpose of becoming the technical foundation of unmanned smart cars, of course, it is also the direction that ADAS systems are actively pursuing. However, after accumulating experience and overcoming blind spots, more active detection systems and even IoT functions must be added at the same time. , have the opportunity to further realize.

The relationship between autonomous driving and ADAS

Autonomous driving is the ultimate goal of advanced driving assistance, and ADAS belongs to L2 (partially autonomous driving) level of autonomous driving. On the road to L5 level autonomous driving, the maturity and perfection of ADAS systems is the basic guarantee. As far as the current technology is concerned, the ADAS system needs to break through the accuracy of external information collection and data processing capabilities. The former solution is a combination of high-precision photography and lidar, while the latter solution is a professional automotive-grade processing chip. Such as MCU, GPU or GPU+FPGA. Of course, there is also the development of high-precision maps in conjunction with the development.

ADAS development status and trends

At this stage, the ADAS system is mainly controlled by the four major manufacturers of ABCD (Autoliv, Bosch, Continental, Dephi) and Mobileye. The domestic market has a low starting point due to the late start of the auto industry. The development of technical driving assistance systems is insufficient, and the country has not yet issued a relevant plan to promote the development of driving assistance system technology. However, due to the limitation of funds and R&D strength, domestic automobile manufacturers invest less in the research and development of advanced driver assistance systems. In terms of policy, China has not issued mandatory installation regulations for advanced driver assistance systems related technologies, but the country has issued mandatory technical regulations for the daytime running lights and tire pressure monitoring systems installed in the domestic market and implemented them. .

development trend

(1) From the perspective of technological development, since consumers will only pay more and more attention to car safety, advanced driver assistance systems will maintain a sustainable development trend for a long time in the future. At the same time, the advanced driver assistance system is changing from the independent development of a single technology to the development of an integrated active safety system. Multiple technologies can share platforms such as sensors and control systems. Once the vehicle is equipped with basic ESP, ACC and other technologies, it can be easily And add other safe driving assistance technologies at a lower cost, which will further promote the application of advanced driver assistance system technology in automobiles.

(2) Some relatively low-end and highly practical advanced driver assistance system technologies, such as tire pressure monitoring system, ESP electronic stability system, etc., have been fully recognized by the market. Driven by strong demand, they are in the low-end market. The penetration rate will steadily increase.

(3) Chinese consumers have shown obvious attention and demand for hedging assistance and vision improvement technologies, which will definitely become the main growth point in this field in the next stage.

(4) Some technologies that have higher requirements on the road, such as lane change assistance, lane departure warning, ACC, etc., and technologies that do not match the driving habits of Chinese consumers, such as lane keeping systems, driver fatigue detection, alcohol-free locking systems, etc., It may face a long period of slow development.

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